Hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (Generic Microzide) is a diuretic drug used to treat high blood pressure.

Generic Microzide is a thiazide diuretic and exhibits the typical action of one. Its action is to deplete the body's sodium stores. It also reduces the levels of chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate and magnesium. The drug also reduces the loss of calcium. It may increase the amount of urine or cause you to urinate more often when you first start taking it. To keep this from disturbing your sleep, try to take your dose before 6 pm.

Hydrochlorothiazide is used for treating high blood pressure. It is also used to treat fluid buildup in the body caused by certain conditions (e.g., heart failure, liver cirrhosis, kidney problems) or medicines (e.g., corticosteroids, estrogen). It may be used alone or with other medicines such as Spironolactone, an another popular diuretic.

Diuretics: sites of action

As a diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide inhibits active chloride reabsorption at the early distal tubule via the Na-Cl cotransporter, resulting in an increase in the excretion of sodium, chloride, and water. Thiazides like hydrochlorothiazide also inhibit sodium ion transport across the renal tubular epithelium through binding to the thiazide sensitive sodium-chloride transporter. This results in an increase in potassium excretion via the sodium-potassium exchange mechanism.

Thiazides such as hydrochlorothiazide promote water loss from the body. Thiazides have been shown to prevent hypertension-related morbidity and mortality although the mechanism is not fully understood. Thiazides cause vasodilation by activating calcium-activated potassium channels (large conductance) in vascular smooth muscles and inhibiting various carbonic anhydrases in vascular tissue.

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Diuretics are drug or foods that help remove excess water from the body by increasing the kidneys' production of urine. Some of the most useful diuretics also increase the salt content of urine.